University of Mumbai

Class: S.E. Branch:Instrumentation Semester: III
Subject: Transducers-I
Periods per Week(60 min. each)


Practical 02
Hours Marks
Evaluation System


03 100
Practical & Oral 02



Term Work



05 200

 all syllabus in single    Click here to download all in PDF



*-Oral examination will be based on object-oriented industrial visit.




1 Instrumentation SystemUnits   &   standards   of   measurement.   Introduction,   blockdiagram, functional elements of measurement system, static & dynamic   characteristics   or   performance   characteristics  of transducer. Error:  definition, classification, statistical analysis of errors. 06
2 TransducerDefinition, classification (active, passive, primary, secondary,mechanical,   electrical,   analog,   digital),   selection   criteria, sources of error for parameter under measurement, transducer specifications, test condition & operating conditions. 03
3 Displacementa) Resistance potentiometer: (linear & logarithmic), piezo-resistive effect, ultrasonic transducer. LVDT, RVDT (transfer function,  linearity, sensitivity, source frequency dependence, phase null, & signal  conditioning). Selection & properties of materials for LVDT, and general electromagnetic sensors.

b) Capacitance type transducers: with applications, materials for capacitive, ultrasonic and elastic transducers.

c)   Digital    transducer:    translational    &   rotary    encoders (absolute position & incremental position encoders), Optical & magnetic pickups.

d) Pneumatic transducer: flapper- nozzle transducer.

4 Temperature transducersModes of heat transfer, laws of conduction convection andradiation,    engineering materials     for         Temperature     and conductive, resistive sensors, properties of materials for RTD, thermister, thermocouple. Temperature scales (standard scale), glass    thermometers,        liquid    expansion    thermometer,   gas thermometer     (filled      system      thermometer),      bimetallic thermometer, solid state temperature sensor.

a)     Resistance     temperature     detector     (RTD):     types, construction, errors associated with RTD & its solutions (3




wire & 4 wire method, null balance, power supply stability),self  heating  effect,  sensitivity,  response  time,  dissipation constant, range advantages, disadvantages and limitations.b) Thermistors: principle, types (NTC, PTC ) , characteristics, construction,        sensitivity,    range,     response     time,     signal conditioning measuring circuit, calibration & applications.

c)  Thermocouple: Principle,  thermoelectric  effect,  Seebeck effect,   Peltier    effect,   laws     of    thermocouple,    types    of thermocouple  with  characteristic  curve,  thermocouple  table, sensitivity,  construction, range, signal conditioning, electrical noise      &     noise     reduction        techniques,     cold     junction compensation method, thermowell,  thermopile, thermocouple emf measurement method.

d) Pyrometers: Radiation & optical.

5 Level TransducersDipsticks, displacers, float system, bubbler, diaphragm boretype, capacitive devices for level measurement, ultrasonic level gauge, DP  cell, load cell, vibrating type, microwave, radar, radioactive type level  gauges, LASER type transducers, fiber optic  level  sensors,  solid  level   detectors,  Intelligent  level measuring instruments. 07
6 MetrologyElements of Engineering measurement: Abbas & Taylorr’sprinciple, theory of limits and fits and their selection, screw thread measurement, gear profile measurement, absolute & comparative measurement & measuring principle, alignment testing, use of auto collimators and design & use of limit gauges, screw & slip gauges. 08


Theory Examination:

1.         Question paper will consist of total 7 questions carrying 20 marks each.

2.         Only 5 questions need to be attempted.

3.         Q.1 will be compulsory and based on the entire syllabus.

4.         Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.

5.         In  question  paper  weightage  of  each  module  will  be  proportional  to  the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.


Practical & Oral Examination:

Practical  examination  will  be  based  on  one  experiment  performed  from  the  list  of

experiments given in the syllabus and the oral will be based on entire subject. The distribution of the marks shall be as follows,

Practical examination                                                             : 25 marks Oral examination                                                                                                : 25 marks Term work:

Term work consists of minimum eight experiments, a written test and industrial visit

report. The distribution of the term work shall be as follows, Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal)                                                                            :10 marks Test (at least one)                                                                                                :10 marks Attendance (Practical and Theory)                                                                            :05 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of laboratory work and minimum passing in the term-work.


*Oral Examination Based on Object-Oriented Industrial Visit

Visit to transducer manufacturing industry to study the manufacturing of the transducer

from raw material to finished product. The student should submit the detailed report depending on the observations made. The concerned teachers of subject Transducer-I will co-ordinate the visit. Oral examination will be based on object oriented industrial visit.




List of Laboratory Experiments:

1. To plot & study the characteristics of- RTD.

2. To plot & study the characteristics of Thermistor (NTC, PTC).

3. To plot & study the characteristics of- Thermocouple J, K, R, S, T (any three).

4. To plot & study the characteristic of LVDT.

5. To plot & study the characteristic of capacitive transducers.

6. Measurement of angular and linear displacement by using digital encoder.

7. Level measurement by using capacitive, air purge method.

8. Study of Flapper nozzle transducer.

9. Application of ultrasonic transmitter receiver for any one parameter.




Text Books:

1.  B.C Nakra, K.K. Cahudhary, Instrumentation Measurement and Analysis, Tata

Mc Graw Hill.

2.  Sawney  A.K.,  Electrical  and  Electronic  Measurement  and  Instrumentation, Dhanpatrai And Co.



Reference Books:

1.  Doeblin E.D., Measurement system, 4th ed..

2.  Liptak B.G., Process measurement and analysis.

3.    Neubert Hermann K. P., Instrument Transducer, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2003.

4.    Johnson Curtis D., Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 5th ed..

5.    Jain R.K., Engineering Metrology, Khana Publishers.

6.    Rangan, Mani, Sarma., Instrumentation Systems and Devices, 2nd  ed., Tata Mc

Graw Hill.

7.    S.P. Sukhatme, Heat Transfer, 3rd edition, University Press.

8.    B.E. Jones, Instrument Technology.

9.    Cheatle     Keith     R.,     Fundamentals     of     Test     Measurement     Instrument

Instrumentation, ISA Publication.

 all syllabus in single    Click here to download all in PDF