University of Mumbai

Class: S.E. Branch: Instrumentation Semester: IV
Subject: Transducer-II
Periods per Week

(60 min. each)


Practical 02
  Hours Marks
Evaluation System


3 100
Practical/Oral 2 50


Term Work 25


5 200

*Oral examination will be based on the object-oriented Industrial visit report.




1 Flow Measurement

Introduction to fluid flow: properties of fluid, types of fluid,

dimensionless  numbers,  types  of  fluid  flow,  fluid  pressure measurement  using  manometer  (U  tube-types,  well  type, inclined      type,     micro-manometer),     continuity     equation, Bernoulli’s   equation,  hydrostatic  law,  Pascal’s  law,  flow through  pipes-  major   &   minor  losses,  flow  measurement through open channel-weirs & notches. Materials used for flow sensors, performance of materials, corrosion resistors, erosion, effect of vapour pressure, cavitation & flashing.

Head type: orifice, venturi, nozzle, pitot tube, characteristics of head type flow meters.

Variable Area type: Rotameter and its type.

Other  flow  meters:  Turbine,  electromagnetic,  ultrasonic, positive  displacement, anemometers, mass flow meters, solid flow measurements.

2 Strain Measurement

Introduction, types of strain gauge, gauge factor calculation,

materials  for  strain  gauge,  resistance  strain  gauge  bridges, temperature compensation and applications of strain gauges.

3 Pressure Measurement

Pressure   scales,   units   &   relations,   classification,   elastic

elements- bourdon tube, diaphragm, bellows. Calibration using dead weight  tester.

Elastic materials: Properties and selection of elastic materials for elastic transducers like  diaphragm, bourdon tube, bellows, Piezo-electric and magnetostrictive materials.

Electrical: Capacitive, piezo-electric, variable reluctance. LVDT, strain gauge.

High Pressure measurement: Bulk modulus cell, Bridgeman type,capsule.

Differential pressure measurement: Force balance, motion balance, DP Cell, semiconductor strain gauges.




4 Vacuum Measurement

Units & relations, McLeod gauge, Pirani gauge, thermocouple

gauge,    hot    cathode   ionization    gauge,    Knudsen    gauge. Calibration using dead weight tester.

5 Electro-chemical Sensors

Terminology, equations, units.

PH measurement-electrodes, measuring circuits, maintenance, temperature compensation, calibration.

Conductivity measurement- probes and measuring circuits. Viscosity measurement: types.

ORP Measurement.

6 Force, Torque and Power Measurement

Force measurement: strain gauge, LVDT, piezoelectric.

Torque: Torsion bar, strain gauge.

Power:  Dynamometer,  instantaneous  power  measurement, alternator power measurement.

7 Miscellaneous Transducers

Position,   speed,    velocity,    acceleration,    vibration,    sound,

humidity, and moisture measurement.





Theory Examination:

1.         Question paper will consist of total 7 questions, of 20 marks each.

2.         Only 5 questions need to be attempted.

3.         Q.1 will be compulsory covering entire syllabus.

4.         Remaining questions will be of mixed nature.

5.         In  question  paper  weightage  of  each  module  will  be  proportional  to  the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.




Practical/Oral Examination:

Practical  examination  will  be  based  on  one  experiment  performed  from  the  list  of

experiments given in the syllabus and the oral will be based on entire subject.


Term work:

Term work consists of minimum eight experiments, industrial visit report and a written

test. The distribution of the term work shall be as follows,

Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal)                          :10 marks Test (at least one)                                                                                                :10 marks Attendance (Practical and Theory)                                                                            :05 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of laboratory work and minimum passing in the term-work.


Oral Examination Based on object–oriented Industrial Visit

Visit to a process industry & calibration institute to study transducer specification &

calibration procedures. The student should submit the detailed report containing the list of seen transducers with their specifications & calibration procedures.

The transducer specification should be studied with respect to following points i) Interpreting manufacturer specification sheets.

ii)         Transducer type

iii)        Operating principle iv)    Accuracy

v)         Linearity vi)         Hysteresis

vii)       Environmental operating limits

The student should submit the detailed report depending on the observations made. The concerned teachers of subject Transducer-II will co-ordinate the visit. Oral examination will be based on the visit report.



List of Laboratory Experiments:

1. Strain gauge characteristics and weight measurement.

2. Measurement of pressure using bellows, diaphragm, bourdon tube.

3. Test & calibration of pressure gauges using dead weight tester.

4. Measurement of flow using orifice/venturi tube/pitot tube.

5. Measurement of flow using rotameter.

6. Study and characterization of PH meter.

7. Study and characterization of conducticity meter.

8. Humidity measurement.

9. Viscosity measurement.

Books Recommended:

1.  Doebin E.D., Measurement system, 4th ed..

2.  Liptak   B.G.,   Instrument   engineer’s   handbook-  Process   measurement  and analysis.

3.  Douglas M. Considine, Process Instruments & controls Handbook, Mc Graw Hill.

4.  Sawney  A.K.,  Electrical  and  Electronic  Measurement  and  Instrumentation, Dhanpatrai And Co.

5.  Curtis Johnson, Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 5th ed..

6.  Rangan, Mani, Sarma, Instrumentation Systems and Devices, 2nd  ed., Tata Mc

Graw Hill.

7.  Nakra B.C., Cahudhary K.K., Instrumentation Measurement and Analysis, Tata

Mc Graw Hill.

8.  Andrew Williams, Applied Instrumentation in process industry, vol-I, Gulf publishing company.

9.  Bansal R.K., Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines, Laxmi publications.

10. David W. Spitzer, Industrial Flow Measurement, ISA Publication.